How To Become a Web Developer, Everything you would like to understand.
Technology plays an enormous role in our daily lives, from the only of apps to the foremost groundbreaking inventions. Every website or piece of software that we encounter has been built by an internet developer, but what exactly is web development, and what does an internet developer do?
To the surface eye, it can appear to be a sophisticated , confusing and somewhat inaccessible field. So, to shed some light on this fascinating industry, we’ve put together the last word introduction to web development and what it takes to become a fully-fledged web developer.
In this guide, we’ll undergo the fundamentals of web development intimately , and show you the foremost essential skills and tools you’ll got to forced an entry the industry. Let’s get some background first, though, we’d like to find out to steer before we will run. If you’re already conversant in the fundamentals of web development and its history, just click the anchor link to skip straight to a later section.
- What is Web Development?
- A Brief History of the planet Wide Web
- What Does an internet Developer Do?
- Programming Languages, Libraries and Frameworks
- What Does it fancy Become an internet Developer?
1. What’s Web Development?
Web development is that the process of building websites and applications for the web , or for a personal network referred to as an intranet. Web development isn’t concerned with the planning of a website; rather, it’s all about the coding and programming that powers the website’s functionality.
From the foremost simple, static sites to social media platforms and apps, from ecommerce websites to content management systems (CMS); all the tools we use via the web on a day to day are built by web developers.
Web development are often weakened into three layers: client-side coding (frontend), server-side coding (backend) and database technology.
Let’s take a glance at each of those layers in additional detail.
Client-side scripting, or frontend development, refers to everything that the top user experiences directly. Client-side code executes during a browser and directly relates to what people see once they visit an internet site . Things like layout, fonts, colours, menus and get in touch with forms are all driven by the frontend.
Server-side scripting, or backend development, is all about what goes on behind the scenes. The backend is actually the a part of an internet site that the user doesn’t actually see. it’s liable for storing and organizing data, and ensuring that everything on the client-side runs smoothly. It does this by communicating with the frontend. Whenever something happens on the client-side — say, a user fills out a form — the browser sends an invitation to the server-side. The server-side “responds” with relevant information within the sort of frontend code that the browser can then interpret and display.
Websites also believe database technology. The database contains all the files and content that are necessary for an internet site to function, storing it in such how that creates it easy to retrieve, organize, edit and save. The database runs on a server, and most websites typically use some sort of electronic database management system (RDBMS).
To summarize: the frontend, backend and database technology all work together to create and run a totally functional website or application, and these three layers form the inspiration of web development.
The Difference Between Web Development and Web Design
You might hear the terms web development and web design used interchangeably, but these are two very various things .
Imagine an internet designer and web developer working together to create a car: the developer would lookout of all the functional components, just like the engine, the wheels and therefore the gears, while the designer would be liable for both the visual aspects — how the car looks, the layout of the dashboard, the planning of the seats — and for the user experience provided by the car, so whether or not it’s a smooth drive.
Web designers design how the web site looks and feels. They model the layout of the web site , ensuring it’s logical, user-friendly and pleasant to use. They consider all the various visual elements: what colour schemes and fonts are going to be used? What buttons, drop-down menus and scrollbars should be included, and where? What interactive touchpoints does the user interact with to urge from point A to B? Web design also considers the knowledge architecture of the web site , establishing what content are going to be included and where it should be placed.
Web design is a particularly broad field, and can often be weakened into more specific roles like User Experience Design, interface Design and knowledge Architecture.
In short, an internet designer is that the architect, while the online developer is that the builder or engineer.
2. A quick History of the planet Wide Web
The web as we all know it today has been decades within the making. to assist understand how web development works, let’s return to where it all started and consider how the web has evolved over the years.
1965: the primary WAN (Wide Area Network)
The internet is actually a network of networks, connecting all different WANs. WAN stands for Wide Area Network, a telecommunications network that spans an outsized geographical distance. the primary WAN was established in 1965 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Later on, this WAN would be referred to as ARPANET. it had been initially funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the US Department of Defense.
1969: the primary ever internet message
In October 1969, UCLA student Charley Kline sent the primary ever internet message. He tried to send the word “login” to a computer at the Stanford Research Institute via the ARPANET network, but the system crashed after the primary two letters. However, about an hour later, the system recovered and therefore the full text was successfully delivered.
1970s: the increase of the LAN (Local Area Network)
The early 70s saw the event of several experimental LAN technologies. LAN stands for Local Area Network, a network that connects nearby devices within the same buildings — like in schools, universities, and libraries. Some notable milestones include the event of Ethernet at Xerox Parc from 1973-1974, and therefore the development of ARCNET in 1976.
1982 – 1989: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), Internet Protocol (IP), the name System and Dial-Up Access
In 1982, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) emerged because the ARPANET protocol, and TCP/IP remains the quality internet protocol today. In 1983, the name System was established, providing a more user-friendly way of labelling and designating websites (i.e. careerfoundry.com rather than a series of numbers). In 1987, Cisco shipped its first router, and in 1989, World.std.com became the primary commercial provider of dial-up internet access.
1990: Tim Berners-Lee and HTML
In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) developed HTML — HyperText terminology . HTML became, and still is, a fundamental building block of the web .
1991: the planet Wide Web Goes Mainstream
With the increase of the visual internet browser, the planet Wide Web made its way into the mainstream. As of 2018, there are quite 4 billion internet users round the globe.
3. What Does an internet Developer Do?
The role of the online developer is to create and maintain websites. Web developers can work in-house or freelance, and therefore the specific tasks and responsibilities involved will vary counting on whether they’re working as a frontend, backend or full stack developer. Full stack developers concentrate on both the frontend and backend; we’ll enter more detail about what a full stack developer does afterward .
Web developers are liable for building a product that meets both the client’s needs and people of the customer or user . Web developers collaborate with stakeholders, clients and designers so as to know the vision: how should the ultimate website look and function?
A large a part of web development also revolves around identifying and fixing bugs so as to constantly optimize and improve an internet site or system. Web developers are therefore keen problem solvers, regularly arising with solutions and workarounds to stay things running smoothly.
Of course, all web developers are proficient in certain programming languages. However, different developers will work with different languages counting on their specific job title and area of experience . Let’s take a glance at the various layers of web development and therefore the associated tasks in additional detail.
What does a frontend developer do?
The frontend developer implements the website’s layout, interactive and navigational elements like buttons and scrollbars, images, content and internal links (links that navigate from one page to a different within an equivalent website). Frontend developers also are liable for ensuring optimal display across different browsers and devices. they’re going to code the web site in such how that creates it responsive or adaptive to varied screen sizes, in order that the user gets an equivalent experience whether they’re visiting the web site on mobile, desktop or tablet.
Frontend developers also will perform usability tests and fix any bugs that arise. At an equivalent time, they’re going to consider SEO best practices, maintain software workflow management, and develop tools that enhance how the user interacts with an internet site in any browser.
What does a backend developer do?
The backend is actually the brains behind the face (the frontend). A backend developer is therefore liable for building and maintaining the technology needed to power the frontend, consisting of three parts: a server, an application and a database.
The code that backend developers create ensures that everything the frontend developer builds is fully functional, and it’s the backend developer’s job to form sure that the server, application and database all communicate with one another . So how do they are doing this? First, they use server-side languages like PHP, Ruby, Python and Java to create the appliance . Then they use tools like MySQL, Oracle and SQL Server to seek out , save or edit data and deliver it back to the user in frontend code.
Just like frontend developers, backend developers will liaise with the client or business owner so as to know their needs and requirements. they’re going to then deliver these during a number of the way counting on the specifics of the project. Typical backend development tasks include creating, integrating and managing the database, building server-side software using backend frameworks, developing and deploying content management systems (for a blog, for example), also as working with web server technologies, API integration and operating systems.
Backend developers also are liable for testing and debugging any backend elements of a system or application.
What does a full-stack developer do?
A full stack developer is someone who understands, and may work across, the “full stack” of technology: i.e. both the frontend and therefore the backend. Full stack developers are experts in every stage of the online development process, meaning they’re well-equipped to urge hands on, but also can guide strategy and best practices.
Most full stack developers have gathered a few years of experience during a sort of different roles, giving them a solid grounding across the whole web development spectrum. Full stack developers are proficient in both frontend and backend languages and frameworks, also as in server, network and hosting environments. they’re also well-versed in both business logic and user experience.
Web developers can also concentrate on mobile app development, either for iOS or Android.
iOS developers build apps that run with the iOS OS — the one employed by Apple devices. iOS developers are fluent in Swift, the programing language that Apple created specifically for his or her apps.
Android developers build apps that are compatible with all Android devices, like Samsung smartphones. Java is that the official programing language for Android.
Learn more:Your guide to mobile app development tools
4. Programming Languages, Libraries and Frameworks
In order to create websites and apps, web developers work with languages, libraries and frameworks. Let’s take a glance at each of those intimately , also as another tools that web developers use in their day-to-day work.
What are languages?
In the world of web development, languages are the building blocks that programmers use to make websites, apps and software. There are all differing types of languages, including programming languages, markup languages, sheet languages and database languages.
A programing language is actually a group of instructions and commands which tell the pc to supply a particular output. Programmers use so-called “high-level” programming languages to write down ASCII text file . High-level languages use logical words and symbols, making them easy for humans to read and understand. High-level languages are often classified as either compiled or interpreted languages.
C++ and Java, as an example , are compiled high-level languages; they’re first saved during a text-based format that’s comprehensible for human programmers but not for computers. so as for the pc to run the ASCII text file , it must be converted to a low-level language; i.e. machine language . Compiled languages tend to be wont to create software applications.
Interpreted languages like Perl and PHP don’t got to be compiled. Instead, ASCII text file written in these languages are often run through an interpreter — a program that reads and executes code. Interpreted languages are generally used for running scripts, like those wont to generate content for dynamic websites.
Low-level languages are people who are often directly recognized by and executed on the pc hardware; they don’t got to be interpreted or translated. Machine language and programming language are some common samples of low-level languages.
Learn more: A beginner’s guide to the ten hottest programming languages
Markup languages are wont to specify the formatting of a document . In other words, a terminology tells the software that displays the text how the text should be formatted. Markup languages are completely legible to the human eye — they contain standard words — but the markup tags aren’t visible within the final output.
The two hottest markup languages are HTML and XML. HTML stands for HyperText terminology and is employed for the creation of internet sites . When added to a clear text document, HTML tags describe how this document should be displayed by an internet browser. to know how HTML works, let’s take the instance of bold tags. The HTML version would be written as follows:
Make this sentence bold!
When the browser reads this, it knows to display that sentence in bold. this is often what the user sees:
Make this sentence bold!
XML stands for eXtensible terminology . it’s a terminology very almost like HTML; however, while HTML was designed to display data with attention on how it’s , XML was designed purely to store and transport data. Unlike HTML, XML tags aren’t predefined; rather, they’re created by the author of the document. the purpose of XML is to simplify data sharing and transport, platform changes and data availability, because it provides a software and hardware-independent means of storing, transporting and sharing data. you’ll learn more about XML and the way it works here.
Style sheet languages
A style sheet is essentially a group of stylistic rules. sheet languages are used, quite literally, to style documents that are written in markup languages.
Consider a document written in HTML and styled using CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), a method sheet language. The HTML is liable for the content and structure of the online page, while CSS determines how this content should be presented visually. CSS are often wont to add colours, change fonts, insert backgrounds and borders, also on style forms. CSS is additionally wont to optimize sites for responsive design, ensuring they adapt their layout to whatever device the user is on.
Languages aren’t only used for building websites, software and apps; they’re also wont to create and manage databases.
Databases are wont to store huge volumes of knowledge . The Spotify music app, for instance , uses databases to store music files, also as data about the user’s listening preferences. Likewise, social media apps like Instagram use databases to store user profile information; whenever a user updates their profile in how , the app’s database also will update.
Databases aren’t designed to know an equivalent languages that apps are programmed in, so it’s essential to possess a language that they are doing understand — like SQL, the quality language for accessing and manipulating relational databases. SQL stands for Structured command language . it’s its own markup, and basically enables programmers to figure with the info held during a database system.
What are libraries and frameworks?
Web developers also work with libraries and frameworks. Despite much confusion, they’re not an equivalent thing — although they’re both there to form the developer’s job easier.
Libraries and frameworks are essentially sets of prewritten code, but libraries are smaller and have a tendency to be used for more specific use-cases. A library contains a set of useful code, grouped together to be reused later. the aim of a library is to enable developers to succeed in an equivalent end goal while writing less code to urge there.
A framework contains ready-made components and tools that enable the developer to write down code faster, and lots of frameworks also contain libraries. It gives the developer a structure to figure from, and therefore the framework you select to figure with will largely dictate the way you build your website or app, so choosing a framework may be a big decision. Some popular frameworks include Bootstrap, Rails and Angular.
The easiest thanks to understand libraries and frameworks is to imagine you’re building a house. The framework provides the inspiration and therefore the structure, also as instructions or guidelines for completing certain tasks. Say you would like to put in an oven in your new home: you’ll buy the separate components and build the oven from scratch, otherwise you could pick a ready-made oven from the shop . a bit like building an internet site , you’ll write the code from scratch otherwise you can take pre-written code from a library and easily insert it.
Other web development tools
Web developers also will use a text editor, like Atom, Sublime or Visual Studio Code, to write down their code; an internet browser, like Chrome or Firefox; and a particularly crucial tool: Git!
Git may be a version system where developers can store and manage their code. As an internet developer, it’s inevitable that you’ll make constant changes to your code, so a tool like Git that permits you to trace these changes and reverse them if necessary is extremely valuable. Git also makes it easier to figure with other teams and to manage multiple projects directly . Git has become such a staple within the world of web development that it’s now considered really bad practice to not use it.
Another extremely popular tool is GitHub, a cloud interface for Git. GitHub offers all the version control functionality of Git, but also comes with its own features like bug tracking, task management and project wikis. GitHub not only hosts repositories; it also provides developers with a comprehensive toolset, making it easier to follow best practices for coding. it’s considered the place to be for open-source projects, and also provides a platform for web developers to showcase their skills. you’ll learn more about the importance of GitHub here.
5. What Does it fancy Become an internet Developer?
A career in web development is challenging, financially rewarding, and features a lot to supply in terms of job security. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts 15% employment growth for web developers between 2016 and 2026 — much faster than average — and web developer ranked because the 8th best job title in tech supported salary and employment rates.
At the time of writing, the typical salary for an internet developer within the us is $76,271 per annum . Of course, salary varies counting on location, years of experience and therefore the specific skills you bring back the table; determine more about what proportion you’ll earn as an internet developer here.
The first step to a career in web development is to find out the required languages, libraries and frameworks. You’ll also got to familiarize yourself with a number of the above-mentioned tools, also as some common terminology. For a beginner-friendly introduction, start with these 50 web development buzzwords that each one new programmers should learn.
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